不抽烟不喝酒,为什么也会得癌症?

被浏览了次, 发表时间:2018-02-09 09:51:00

<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">案例1:喂了一年母乳<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">为什么我还会得乳腺癌?<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">第一,我没有遗传,我体质很好;<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">第二,我刚生完孩子喂了一年的母乳;<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">第三,乳腺癌患者都是45岁以上人群,而我只有31岁,为啥是我得了癌症?”<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">因患乳腺癌去世的复旦大学教师于娟,在其博客《活着就是王道》中写道。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">乳腺癌的确有一些高危因素:有家族史、未婚/未育、有乳腺非典型增生、胸部接触过较高剂量的放射线或雌激素的长期刺激等。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">但是,准确来说,高危因素是促发因素而不是根本原因,降低这些因素影响,可能会使发病年龄推迟一些,发病程度相对轻一点,但绝不是避免危险因素就一定不得乳腺癌。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">建议:预防乳腺癌最重要的是早发现、早检查、早治疗。建议40岁以下女性进行乳腺超声检查,40岁以上则需要钼靶X检查,必要时还需要做乳腺核磁共振。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">案例2:我年轻身体好,为什么得胃癌<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">23岁的小丽,平时身体倍儿棒,突然吃什么都吐,肚子越来越胀,持续好几周,体重急速下降。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">结果去医院检查发现肚子存在大量血性腹水,本应松软的胃壁变得格外坚硬,犹如皮革一般。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">最终,小丽被确诊为胃部低分化腺癌晚期。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">胃癌发病人群总体来说是中老年人,但并不是年轻人就不会得,门诊中接触的最年轻的胃癌患者只有13岁。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">近年来青年人胃癌发病率升高,发病年龄年轻化,和一些年轻人爱在街边小摊吃快餐、麻辣烫,营养不均衡有关系。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">而且很多人直到出现胃部严重不适才去医院,这时查出胃癌就已经到晚期。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">黑便、呕血、黄疸症状,这往往就是处于胃癌晚期的症状。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">所以,对于胃癌的早期症状一定要警觉:不明原因贫血、消瘦或有胃部症状,不论年龄,都要及时就诊,接受胃镜检查。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">建议:胃癌高危人群,比如有家族史、慢性萎缩性胃炎、幽门螺杆菌感染等病史人群,要更加积极筛查。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">40岁以后定期做胃镜,一般1~2年做一次较好。还要保持健康生活方式,拒绝霉变、过于辛辣的食物。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">案例3:我不抽烟,爱健身,为什么得肺癌<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">30岁的Vicky Veness是一位私人健身教练,前不久她在社交媒体上发布了一张自己被诊断患有第4期肺癌的照片,引起了网络上一片震惊。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">她爱跑步,饮食十分健康,就是这样一位看似“健康”的年轻人却患上肺癌。大家要明确一点,不吸烟并不代表一定不会得肺癌。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">事实上,肺癌是由很多因素导致的,抽烟虽然是造成肺癌的“头号杀手”,但是一些次要的原因也不容忽视。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">比如这些致癌因素:长期暴露于“二手烟”的环境之中;熬夜、加班导致身体过劳,抵抗力变差,免疫力变弱,也会加大患上肺癌的几率。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">建议:40岁以上有主动或被动吸烟史或者生活在雾霾严重地区的人群,每年做一次低剂量CT扫描检查。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">年轻人如果有预防意识,也可以到医院征求医生建议,主动做一些肺部检查。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">案例4:我不喝酒,为什么得肝癌?<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">黄女士今年24岁,平时不抽烟也不喝酒,却被查出患有肝癌,而且已到晚期。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">开始时呕吐、没食欲以为是胃病。在出现右腹疼痛几天后,到医院被医生确诊为肝癌晚期。小黄的妈妈想不通,“女儿这么年轻怎么会得癌症呢?”在这个案例中,黄女士得癌并不是意外,原因是小黄的妈妈是一名乙肝病毒携带者,由于婴儿出生时没做病毒阻断,所以婴儿一出生就携带乙肝病毒。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">通过二十多年长期的乙肝感染,小黄的肝脏已经经历了肝炎、肝硬化到肝癌的“肝癌三部曲”。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">肝癌并不是遗传病,但由于母亲将乙肝传播给小黄,就明显增加了患肝癌的风险。乙肝病毒不断破坏正常的肝细胞,日积月累就可能出现一些特别区域基因的突变,从而导致肝癌的发生。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">长期酗酒会导致酒精性肝硬化,明显增加患肝癌的风险。但不喝酒也不一定就能完全不患肝癌,因为还有很多导致癌症发生的危险因素:比如食用过期的茶叶或米、平时工作压力过大、经常吸烟等等。<p transparent;"="" 0px;="" normal;="" 1;="" 2;="" border-box;="" none;="" 34);="" 34,="" rgb(34,="" 16px="" sans-serif;="" arial,="" neue",="" "helvetica="" hei",="" micro="" "wenquanyi="" yahei",="" "microsoft="" gb",="" sans="" "hiragino="" sc",="" pingfang="">建议:肝癌预防最理想的还是早诊早治。筛查项目有B超、肿瘤标记物等,如果患有由于乙肝、丙肝、脂肪肝等因素造成的肝硬化,尤其要注意这两项的筛查。
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